Reference Studies

There are numerous studies that demonstrate the safety and efficacy of enzymes and probiotics for use as dietary supplements.  Below are just a few of the available reference studies.  For more information on additional studies, please contact us.


Some features of intestinal absorption of intact fibrinolytic enzyme III-1 from Lumbricus rubellus

Changes in coagulation and tissue plasminogen activator after the treatment of cerebral infarction with lumbrokinase

A novel fibrinolytic enzyme extracted from the earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus

Intestinal Absorption of Fibrinolytic and Proteolytic Lumbrokinase Extracted from Earthworm, Eisenia andrei

Comparative evaluation of alpha-galactosidase A infusions for treatment of Fabry disease

Enzyme replacement therapy in Fabry disease- a randomized controlled trial

Evidence that pancreatic proteases enhance vitamin B12 absorption by acting on curde preparations of hog gastric intrinsic factor and human gastric juice

Mixture of trypsin, chymotrypsin and papain reduces formation of metastases and extends survival time of C57B16 mice with syngeneic melanoma B16

Oral therapy with proteolytic enzymes decreases excessive TGF-beta levels in human blood

Prevention of murine EAE by oral hydrolytic enzyme treatment

Safety and efficacy of recombinant human alpha-galactosidase A replacement therapy in Fabry’s disease

Safety evaluation of a lactase enzyme preparation derived from Kluyveromyces lactis

Safety evaluation of a lipase enzyme preparation, expressed in Pichia pastoris, intended for use in the degumming of edible vegetable oil

Safety evaluation of a lipase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae

Safety evaluation of a phytase, expressed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, intended for use in animal feed

Safety evaluation of a xylanase expressed in Bacillus subtilis

Safety evaluation of amino peptidase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger

Safety evaluation of an alpha-amylase enzyme preparation derived from the archaeal order Thermococcales as expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I

Safety evaluation of beta-glucanase derived from Trichoderma reesei- summary of toxicological data

Safety evaluation of lipase derived from Rhizopus oryzae- summary of toxicological data

Safety evaluation of lipase G from Penicillium camembertii

Safety evaluation of lipase produced from Candida rugosa- summary of toxicological data

Safety evaluation of lipase produced from Rhizopus oryzae- summary of toxicological data

Systemic enzyme therapy in oncology- effect and mode of action

Transport of proteolytic enzymes across Caco-2 cell monolayers

Trypsin, elastase, plasmin and MMP-9 activity in the serum during the human ageing process


Proteinase activity and stability of natural bromelain preparations

Bromelain treatment decreases neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation

Bromelain inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cytrokine production in human THP-1 monocytes via the removal of CD14

Bromelain modulates T cell and B cell immune responses in vitro and in vivo

In vitro study on the immunological effect of bromelain and trypsin on mononuclear cells from humans

Bromelain, from pineapple stems, proteolytically blocks activation of extracellular regulated kinase-2 in T cells

Oral administration of protease inhibits enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli receptor activity in piglet small intestine

The influence of bromelain on platelet count and platelet activity in vitro

In vivo antitumoral activity of stem pineapple (Ananas comosus) bromelain

Improvement in protein utilization in nursing-home patients on tube feeding supplemented with an enzyme product derived from Aspergillus niger and bromelain

Bromelain treatment decreases secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by colon biopsies in vitro

Use of Bromelain for Mild Ulcerative Colitis

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral hydrolytic enzymes in relapsing multiple sclerosis

Bromelain in the early phase of healing in acute crush Achilles tendon injury

Protease Supplementation Improves Muscle Function after Eccentric Exercise

Bromelain reduces mild acute knee pain and improves well-being in a dose-dependent fashion in an open study of otherwise healthy adults

Therapeutic Use, efficiency and safety of the proteolytic pineapple enzyme bromelain-POS in children with acute sinusitis in Germany

Proteolytic activity and immunogenicity of oral bromelain within the gastrointestinal tract of mice


Anti hypertensive substances in fermented soybean natto

Enhancement of the Fibrinolytic Activity in Plasma by Oral Administration of Nattokinase

Fibrinolytic enzymes in Asian traditional fermented foods

Intake of Natto is associated with reduced bone loss in postmenopausal women

Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects

Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD)

Superoxide Radical and Superoxide Dismutases

Influence of age on activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in erythrocytes and neutrophils of down syndrome patients

Intraoral manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid.liposome (MnSOD-PL) radioprotective gene therapy decreases ionizing irradiation-induced murine mucosal cell cycling and apoptosis

Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase modulates phenotypic changes in cultured fibroblasts from human skin with chronic radiotherapy damage

Topical superoxide dismutase reduces post-irradiation breast cancer fibrosis

Supplementation with gliadin-combined plant superoxide dismutase extract promotes antioxidant defences and protects against oxidative stress

Effect of encapsulation on the anti-inflammatory properties of superoxide dismutase after oral administration

Anti-inflammatory activity of various superoxide dismutases on polyarthritis in the Lewis rat

Superoxide dismutase ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis by reducing oxidative stress, adhesion molecule expression, and leukocyte recruitment into the inflamed intestine

Effects of an oral superoxide enzyme supplementation of indices of oxidative stress, proviral load, and CD4-CD8 ratios in asymptomatic FIV-infected cats

Oral supplementation with melon superoxide dismutase extract promotes antioxidant defences in the brain and prevents stress-induced impairment of spatial memory

The effect of postinjury administration of polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (pegorgotein, Dismutec) or lidocaine on behavioral function

Protection against oxygen toxicity by intravenous injection of liposome-entrapped catalase and superoxide dismutase

Effect of superoxide dismutase on a rabbit model of chronic allergic asthma

Therapeutic Effect of Lecithinized Superoxide Dismutase on Pulmonary Emphysema

Safety and pharmacokinetics of recombinant human superoxide dismutase administered intratracheally to premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome

Targeting of superoxide dismutase to the liver results in anti-inflammatory effects in rats with fibrotic livers

Dietary superoxide dismutase does not affect tissue levels

Superoxide dismutase and catalase as therapeutic agents for human diseases: A critical review


Analysis of the fecal microflora of human subjects consuming a probiotic product containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20

Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on candidiasis in immunodeficient mice

Commensal anaerobic gut bacteria attenuate inflammation by regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of PPAR-gamma and ReIA

Effect of administration of Lactobacillus casei strain GG on the gastrointestinal microbiota of newborns

Effect of probiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms and small intestinal permeability in children with atopic dermatitis

Escherichia coli serotypes throughout the gastrointestinal tract of patients with intestinal disorders

Good adhesion properties of probiotics- a potential risk for bacteremia

Lactic acid bacteria inhibit TH2 cytokine production by mononuclear cells from allergic patients

Lactobacilli and bacteremia in southern Finland, 1989-1992

Lactobacilli differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface markers in murine dendritic cells

Lactobacillus bacteremia during a rapid increase in probiotic use of Lactobcillus rhamnosus GG in Finland

Lactobacillus endocarditis cause by a probiotic organism

Lactobacillus GG effect in increasing IFN-gamma production in infants with cow’s milk allergy

Probiotics- A novel approach in the management of food allergy

Probiotics and safety

Probiotics for treating infectious diarrhoea

Probiotics in Clinical Conditions

Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea- meta-analysis

Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease- a randomized placebo-controlled trial

Safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation to a population infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

Safety of probiotics that contain lactobacilli or bifidobacteria

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth- Roles of Antibiotics, Prebiotics, and Probiotics

Bacillus subtilis

The Intestinal Life Cycle of Bacillus subtilis and Close Relatives

The Safety of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus indicus as food probiotics

The Safety of Two Bacillus Probiotic Strains for Human Use


These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. The information contained in this website is intended for educational purposes only. If you are currently taking medications, or have other health-related conditions, consult a physician before adding supplements to your diet.